Agree, disagree? This idea haunted me as I was writing The Happiness Project. It seemed relevant to everything.
I'm finishing my next book, Better Than Before, about how we make and break habits.The most fascinating subject ever. In it, I reveal the secret of how we can change our habits--really! Sign up here to be notified when it goes on sale. Want to know the quotation that haunts me for that book? Look here.
Today, I’m talking about the Strategy of Convenience. This is one of the most powerful, straightforward, and popular strategies of habit change.
People often ask me, “What surprises you most about habits?” One thing that continually astonishes me is the degree to which we’re influenced by sheer convenience. The amount of effort, time, or decision making required by an action has a huge influence on habit formation. To a truly remarkable extent, we’re more likely to do something if it’s convenient, and less likely if it’s not. For instance, here are 8 reasons why convenience can interfere with exercise.
We should pay close attention to the convenience of any activity we want to make into a habit. Putting a wastebasket next to our front door made mail sorting slightly more convenient, and I stopped procrastinating with this chore. Many people report that they do a much better job of forming the habit of staying close to distant family members now that tools like Facebook, Skype, FaceTime, and group chats make it easy to stay in touch.
Upholders respond readily to outer and inner expectations (I’m an Upholder, 100%)
Questioners question all expectations; they’ll meet an expectation if they think it makes sense, so they make everything an inner expectation
Obligers meet outer expectations, but struggle to meet expectations they impose on themselves
Rebels resist all expectations, outer and inner alike
I gave a talk at LinkedIn about the Four Tendencies, so if you’d like to see me discuss each category in a video, you can watch: for Upholders, watch here;Questioners, here; Obligers, here, and Rebels, here.
I’m always trying to deepen my understanding of how the Tendencies play out. So over the past week, I’ve been posing some questions. One day, I focused on Rebels.
Today’s questions relate to the Questioner Tendency.
I have a lot of exposure to this Tendency, because my husband is a Questioner.
Being married to a Questioner is helpful to me, because as an Upholder, my instinct is to meet an expectation without questioning it too closely. My husband always questions an expectation before he’ll do it, and I’ve learned to question more myself. This Tendency saves him a lot of work. Sometimes I admire it, sometimes it drives me crazy.
Last night, I pointed to two small drawings hanging on the wall, and said, “Can you please switch these two?”
He said, “Why can’t you?” He didn’t mean it in a bad way, but just — why can’t you do it?
I gave him a look. As an Upholder, I must confess, this response annoys me. I don’t ask him to do much, and when I do ask him to do something, I have my reasons, and I don’t feel like I should have to justify at length every single request. But that’s what a Questioner wants! Explanations, justifications.
I’m making a list of the questions that Questioners pose, before they meet an expectation. Forming a habit is a form of expectation (whether self-imposed or other-imposed), so to form a habit successfully, Questioners need to have their questions answered. They often ask:
–Why should I listen to you? (This question isn’t meant in a snarky way, but literally.) What’s your expertise? A friend told me, “When my son broke his arm, I interviewed four doctors. My husband thought I was crazy, but I can’t listen to a doctor unless I have complete trust.”
–Why should I have to do this, instead of someone else? My husband and household habits. Questioners are great at delegating, unless they think that no one else can do something.
–Where can I get more information? Questioners love information and research. In fact, they sometimes complain of “analysis paralysis”; they want more and more information.
–How can I tweak this habit to suit my individual needs?
–Isn’t there a better way to structure this habit? Questioners like to find better ways to do things.
–What problems has everyone else overlooked, that I can identify? Questioners are good at spotting error.
Questioners, what other questions do you find yourself asking? Questioner-observers, what do you get asked? Does this list ring true?
Do you find questioning helpful, or does it become tiresome at some points?
What am I missing?
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For instance, he’s done a lot of research to show how much convenience influences whether and how much we eat. It’s astonishing how much convenience matters. The lesson for habits? Make it easy to do things right, and hard to do things wrong.
Brian Wansink has a new book, Slim By Design: Mindless Eating Solutions for Everyday Life. It’s crammed with ideas to make it easy to eat healthier–without even noticing that you’re making changes. The book is fascinating, and surprisingly lively and funny–this isn’t a dry review of the literature. It’s a fun read.
I so agree with this approach of “mindless eating” to eating habits. Whenever someone tells me, “I need to make healthy choices,” I think, “No, don’t make healthy choices! Choose once, then stop deciding. Use habits. Mindfully use mindlessness to get where you want to go.”
I was very eager to hear what Brian Wansink had to say about habits in general, and about his own habits.
Gretchen: You’ve done fascinating research on the subject of habits and eating. What’s the most significant thing you’ve concluded?
Brian: After conducting hundreds of food studies, I’m increasingly convinced that our stomach has only three settings: 1) We either feel like we’re starving, 2) we feel like we’re stuffed, or 3) we feel like we can eat more. Most of the time we’re in the middle, we’re neither hungry nor full, but if something’s put in front of us, we’ll eat it. I all but guarantee that most people with a few spare pounds would lose 20 pounds in a year if every time they had a craving they would announce – out loud – “I’m not hungry, but I’m going to eat this anyway.” Having to make that declaration either prevents you for eating, or if you do indulge, it prevents you from overindulging.
A second finding is that most people think they are too smart to be influenced by candy dishes, television, or the shape of a glass. When we show someone that they ate 30% more because we gave them a large scoop at the ice cream social, they will deny it. That’s what is so astonishing. No one wants to admit they were tricked by something as mundane as the size of a scoop or the shape of a glass. That’s what makes these cues around us so dangerous to our diets.
What aspects of habits would be most helpful for people to understand?
Most people believe they are Master and Commander of their food choices. They aren’t, but I want them to see that they can make small changes that can put them back in the driver’s seat. I want people to see that making small changes in their kitchens and routines will make all the difference with no real sacrifice.
What’s a simple habit that consistently makes you happier?
Before both breakfast and lunch, I think of one thing that’s happened so far that day that I’m grateful for. At dinnertime – if I’m home and not traveling – I have a slightly different routine. Each person in the family (including me) shares what happened that day by answering 4 questions: 1) their high point, 2) their low point, 3) who they appreciate most and why, and 4) their plan for tomorrow. It gives them a chance to celebrate the good things that happen, realize that each of us has daily disappointments, thank a person who helped them out, and to raise their eyes toward the future. All three of my daughters get their moment in the sun, and it makes me happy to see each one shine.
What’s something you know now about forming healthy habits that you didn’t know when you were 18 years old?
When you get up in the morning, you can say “This is going to be a tremendous day,” “This is going to be OK day,” or “This is going to be a terrible day.” Regardless of what you say, you’ll be right.
Do you have any habits that continually get in the way of your happiness?
The most top of mind that gets in the way of my happiness is very vivid right now: It’s thinking my work is more urgent than my young daughters.
I’m in DC now because I gave a House and a Senate Briefing on something related to Slim by Design. An hour ago, I was on the phone with my middle daughter, and she asked if I knew these people and I said, “No.”
She replied, “But Daddy, why do you have time to read your book to strangers but not to us. We’re more important than strangers. We’re your little girls.” I’m still choked up and wiping my eyes.
Which habits are most important to you? (for heath, for creativity, for productivity, for leisure, etc.)
Dreaming big, staying positive, building other people up, laughing as much as possible and making other people laugh.
Have you ever managed to gain a challenging healthy habit—or to break an unhealthy habit? If so, how did you do it?
The only way I can do it is by avoiding what I call the Tyranny of the Moment.
Generally speaking, we can commit to making a small change in life, such as not eating sweet snacks before dinner. We can write it down, cross our heart, and announce it to others. We can really, really mean it. But fast forward two days. It is been a hard day at work; you finished a 45 minute commute; you are drained, and you know frozen Snickers bar is waiting in the right corner of the freezer door. It is easy to break your cross-the-heart commitment. After all, today is an exception – it was a tough day and, come to think of it, you did not have a very big breakfast. Your plan of the year has just been thwarted by the tyranny of the moment. And the moment – this one exceptional moment – tyrannically wins every time.
Sometimes that inner voice actually whispers to us, “I know I said I’m not going to eat out of vending machines at work, but today’s different – it’s been crazy,” or “I know I still have to do my sit-ups today, but it’s late – I’ll do twice as many tomorrow when I wake up.” I know I should have had only one glass of wine but this is really a great dinner and a really good wine.” [I talk about this problem in the Strategy of Loophole-Spotting.]
There is only one thing that is strong enough to defeat the tyranny of the moment.
As mentally disciplined as most of us like to think we are, nothing beats having to face facts each night and check off a box. We have very selective memories, but I use tools such as this checklist to let us know just why – or why not – we have painlessly lost two pounds on the 31st of the month.
This basic approach works for well or other habits also.
Would you describe yourself as an Upholder, a Questioner, a Rebel, or an Obliger?
80% Upholder, 20% Rebel.
Does anything tend to interfere with your ability to keep your healthy habits? (e.g. travel, parties)
Since I try to invest heavily in other people, I’m tripped up when a key relationship isn’t going well — it’s tremendously disorienting. A while back, my wife and I were having difficulties, and it threw me out of balance so much that it distracted me away my mindlessly healthy routines. One day I woke up and realized I had gained over 20 lbs.
I went back to these routines (they’re in Mindless Eating, chapter 10), and lost the pounds in about 4 months. It was an unfortunate reminder about what happens when we let healthy habits (and relationships) slip.
Have you ever been hit by a lightning bolt, where you changed a major habit very suddenly, as a consequence of reading a book, a conversation with a friend, a milestone birthday, a health scare, etc.?
You were raised in Kansas City [wow, good memory, Brian!], and I was raised up the Missouri River in Sioux City, Iowa. My parents were extremely loving and supportive, but there wasn’t an expectation I would go to college or the means to very easily make it happen. I did go to college, and to try and support myself, I struggled selling Amway. I worked all the time, but I blamed my lack of success on being too shy, not smart enough, not having a suit, and so on. One day a friend gave me a copy of an old book called The Magic of Thinking Big by David Schwartz.
This book gave me a transforming level of confidence in myself and my mission. I reread that book 10 times within the first month and at least 30 more times since. Within a semester my grades went from a 2.5 to a 3.8, I met my wonderful college sweetheart, my college money worries disappeared, I ran for the student senate, and I committed myself to become a professor who changes eating behavior – oh, and I bought a suit.
I’ve given that book to over 200 people over the past 25 years. Most think it’s pretty hokey, dated, or simple-minded. I understand that, but I would also understand if their thinking – as a result – never grew any bigger than the thinking they inherited from their parents.
Do you embrace habits or resist them?
Embrace. That was the theme of Mindless Eating, and that’s also the theme of Slim by Design: “For 90 percent of us, the solution to mindless eating is not mindful eating—our lives are just too crazy and our willpower’s too wimpy. Instead, the solution is to tweak small things in our homes, favorite restaurants, supermarkets, workplaces, and schools so we mindlessly eat less and better instead of more. It’s easier to use a small plate, face away from the buffet, and Frisbee-spin the bread basket across the table than to be a martyr on a hunger strike. Willpower is hard and has to last a lifetime. Rearranging your life to be Slim by Design is easy.”
Has another person ever had a big influence on your habits?
Absolutely. This happens all of the time. I am a very coachable person. Sometimes that coach is a 5-year old daughter who tells me drink less Diet Coke, and sometimes it’s an author whose book I’ve read over 40 times.
My book Better Than Before, about how we can make and break habits, comes out in March. In it, I reveal the secret of how to change habits--really! If you want to be notified when it goes on sale, sign up here.
She’s thrilled, because if she helps me, she gets to watch extra TV. I get free labor. Everybody wins!
Last night, we were watching the Parks and Recreation episode “Pawnee Rangers” in Season Four. In it, Tom and Donna celebrate their annual “Treat Yo’ Self!” day. They spend the entire day in treating themselves.
But perhaps surprisingly, there’s a real skill in “treating yourself.”
When they’re getting ready to set off, Donna suggests that they ask their friend and co-worker Ben to come along on the treat-yourself adventure day. She explains, “He really seems like he could use a day off. He’s like a skinny, little rubber band that’s about to snap in half.” It’s true: people who go too long without treats often become brittle, drained, and impatient.
But Tom protests (in a line I love), “There’s no way Ben can slow down enough to keep up with us.”
But as the show unfolds, it becomes clear that “Treat Yo’ Self” day is about having a fun day, two friends spending time together, doing their favorite things. “It’s the best day of the year!” as Donna sings. They share this day. They have little traditions. I bet even Tom and Donna would admit that the day together matters more than the fine leather goods or the massages.
I would love to plan a “Treat Yourself” day with a friend, with lots of healthy treats, all loaded into one terrific day.
When we feel that we get no treats, when we feel deprived, we start invoking loopholes like “I’ve earned this,” “I deserve this,” and “I need this.” These loopholes often get used to justify breaking our good habits — but when we get healthy treats, we don’t feel justified in our unhealthy habits.
I write about the delightful Strategy of Treats, and hilarious Strategy of Loophole-Spotting, in my new book, Better Than Before, about how we make and break habits. In it, I reveal the secret of habit-formation — really! Sign up here to be notified when it goes on sale.
Can you imagine planning a “Treat Yourself” day with a friend? And what healthy treats do you have for yourself? We all need as long a list as possible.
As I mentioned, you can request a free, personalized, signed bookplate for your copy of The Happiness Project or Happier at Home. Or, if you have the e-book or the audio-book, a signature card. One card is "Paradoxes of Happiness," the other is "Tips for Happiness in Your New Home." Or would you like these for a friend? Request as many as you want, here. Alas, because of mailing costs, I can now mail only to the U.S. and Canada--so sorry about that.